Git Cheat Sheet

Setup-----    git clone <repo>  clone the repository specified by <repo>; this is similar to "checkout" in  some other version control systems such as Subversion and CVSAdd colors to your ~/.gitconfig file:    [color]      ui = auto    [color "branch"]      current = yellow reverse      local = yellow      remote = green    [color "diff"]      meta = yellow bold      frag = magenta bold      old = red bold      new = green bold    [color "status"]      added = green      changed = yellow      untracked = redHighlight whitespace in diffs    [color]      ui = true    [color "diff"]      whitespace = red reverse    [core]      whitespace=fix,-indent-with-non-tab,trailing-space,cr-at-eolAdd aliases to your ~/.gitconfig file:    [alias]      st = status      ci = commit      br = branch      co = checkout      df = diff      lg = log -p      lol = log --graph --pretty=format:'%C(yellow)%h%Creset %an: %s - %Creset %C(yellow)%d%Creset %Cblue(%cr)%Creset' --abbrev-commit --date=relative      lola = log --graph --pretty=format:'%C(yellow)%h%Creset %an: %s - %Creset %C(yellow)%d%Creset %Cblue(%cr)%Creset' --abbrev-commit --date=relative --all      ls = ls-filesConfiguration-------------    git config -e [--global]    edit the .git/config [or ~/.gitconfig] file in your $EDITOR    git config --global 'John Doe'      git config --global    sets your name and email for commit messages    git config branch.autosetupmerge true    tells git-branch and git-checkout to setup new branches so that git-pull(1)  will appropriately merge from that remote branch.  Recommended.  Without this,  you will have to add --track to your branch command or manually merge remote  tracking branches with "fetch" and then "merge".    git config core.autocrlf true    This setting tells git to convert the newlines to the system’s standard  when checking out files, and to LF newlines when committing inYou can add "--global" after "git config" to any of these commands to make itapply to all git repos (writes to ~/.gitconfig).Info----    git reflog    Use this to recover from *major* fuck ups! It's basically a log of the  last few actions and you might have luck and find old commits that  have been lost by doing a complex merge.    git diff    show a diff of the changes made since your last commit  to diff one file: "git diff -- <filename>"  to show a diff between staging area and HEAD: `git diff --cached`    git status  show files added to the staging area, files with changes, and untracked files    git log  show recent commits, most recent on top. Useful options:  --color       with color  --graph       with an ASCII-art commit graph on the left  --decorate    with branch and tag names on appropriate commits  --stat        with stats (files changed, insertions, and deletions)  -p            with full diffs  --author=foo  only by a certain author  --after="MMM DD YYYY" ex. ("Jun 20 2008") only commits after a certain date  --before="MMM DD YYYY" only commits that occur before a certain date  --merge       only the commits involved in the current merge conflicts    git log <ref>..<ref>    show commits between the specified range. Useful for seeing changes from  remotes:  git log HEAD..origin/master # after git remote update    git show <rev>    show the changeset (diff) of a commit specified by <rev>, which can be any  SHA1 commit ID, branch name, or tag (shows the last commit (HEAD) by default)    git show --name-only <rev>    show only the names of the files that changed, no diff information.    git blame <file>  show who authored each line in <file>    git blame <file> <rev>  show who authored each line in <file> as of <rev> (allows blame to go back in  time)    git gui blame    really nice GUI interface to git blame    git whatchanged <file>    show only the commits which affected <file> listing the most recent first  E.g. view all changes made to a file on a branch:      git whatchanged <branch> <file>  | grep commit | \           colrm 1 7 | xargs -I % git show % <file>  this could be combined with git remote show <remote> to find all changes on  all branches to a particular file.    git diff <commit> head path/to/fubar    show the diff between a file on the current branch and potentially another  branch    git diff head -- <file>    use this form when doing git diff on cherry-pick'ed (but not committed)  changes  somehow changes are not shown when using just git diff.    git ls-files    list all files in the index and under version control.    git ls-remote <remote> [HEAD]  show the current version on the remote repo. This can be used to check whether  a local is required by comparing the local head revision.Adding / Deleting-----------------    git add <file1> <file2> ...    add <file1>, <file2>, etc... to the project    git add <dir>    add all files under directory <dir> to the project, including subdirectories    git add .    add all files under the current directory to the project  *WARNING*: including untracked files.    git rm <file1> <file2> ...    remove <file1>, <file2>, etc... from the project    git rm $(git ls-files --deleted)    remove all deleted files from the project    git rm --cached <file1> <file2> ...    commits absence of <file1>, <file2>, etc... from the projectIgnoring---------Option 1:Edit $GIT_DIR/info/exclude. See Environment Variables below for explanation on$GIT_DIR.Option 2:Add a file .gitignore to the root of your project. This file will be checked in.Either way you need to add patterns to exclude to these files.Staging-------    git add <file1> <file2> ...      git stage <file1> <file2> ...    add changes in <file1>, <file2> ... to the staging area (to be included in  the next commit    git add -p      git stage --patch    interactively walk through the current changes (hunks) in the working  tree, and decide which changes to add to the staging area.    git add -i      git stage --interactive    interactively add files/changes to the staging area. For a simpler  mode (no menu), try `git add --patch` (above)Unstaging---------    git reset HEAD <file1> <file2> ...    remove the specified files from the next commitCommitting----------    git commit <file1> <file2> ... [-m <msg>]    commit <file1>, <file2>, etc..., optionally using commit message <msg>,  otherwise opening your editor to let you type a commit message    git commit -a    commit all files changed since your last commit  (does not include new (untracked) files)    git commit -v    commit verbosely, i.e. includes the diff of the contents being committed in  the commit message screen    git commit --amend    edit the commit message of the most recent commit    git commit --amend <file1> <file2> ...    redo previous commit, including changes made to <file1>, <file2>, etc...Branching---------    git branch    list all local branches    git branch -r    list all remote branches    git branch -a    list all local and remote branches    git branch <branch>    create a new branch named <branch>, referencing the same point in history as  the current branch    git branch <branch> <start-point>    create a new branch named <branch>, referencing <start-point>, which may be  specified any way you like, including using a branch name or a tag name    git push <repo> <start-point>:refs/heads/<branch>    create a new remote branch named <branch>, referencing <start-point> on the  remote.    Example: git push origin origin:refs/heads/branch-1    Example: git push origin origin/branch-1:refs/heads/branch-2    git branch --track <branch> <remote-branch>    create a tracking branch. Will push/pull changes to/from another repository.  Example: git branch --track experimental origin/experimental    git branch -d <branch>    delete the branch <branch>; if the branch you are deleting points to a   commit which is not reachable from the current branch, this command   will fail with a warning.    git branch -r -d <remote-branch>    delete a remote-tracking branch.    Example: git branch -r -d wycats/master    git branch -D <branch>    even if the branch points to a commit not reachable from the current branch,  you may know that that commit is still reachable from some other branch or  tag. In that case it is safe to use this command to force git to delete the  branch.    git checkout <branch>    make the current branch <branch>, updating the working directory to reflect  the version referenced by <branch>    git checkout -b <new> <start-point>    create a new branch <new> referencing <start-point>, and check it out.    git push <repository> :<branch>    removes a branch from a remote repository.    Example: git push origin :old_branch_to_be_deleted    git co <branch> <path to new file>    Checkout a file from another branch and add it to this branch. File  will still need to be added to the git branch, but it's present.    Eg. git co remote_at_origin__tick702_antifraud_blocking    ..../...nt_elements_for_iframe_blocked_page.rb     git show <branch> -- <path to file that does not exist>    Eg. git show remote_tick702 -- path/to/fubar.txt    show the contents of a file that was created on another branch and that   does not exist on the current branch.    git show <rev>:<repo path to file>    Show the contents of a file at the specific revision. Note: path has to be  absolute within the repo.Merging-------    git merge <branch>    merge branch <branch> into the current branch; this command is idempotent  and can be run as many times as needed to keep the current branch   up-to-date with changes in <branch>    git merge <branch> --no-commit    merge branch <branch> into the current branch, but do not autocommit the  result; allows you to make further tweaks    git merge <branch> -s ours    merge branch <branch> into the current branch, but drops any changes in  <branch>, using the current tree as the new treeCherry-Picking--------------    git cherry-pick [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] <commit>    selectively merge a single commit from another local branch    Example: git cherry-pick 7300a6130d9447e18a931e898b64eefedea19544Squashing---------WARNING: "git rebase" changes history. Be careful. Google it.    git rebase --interactive HEAD~10    (then change all but the first "pick" to "squash")  squash the last 10 commits into one big commitConflicts---------    git mergetool    work through conflicted files by opening them in your mergetool (opendiff,  kdiff3, etc.) and choosing left/right chunks. The merged result is staged for  commit.For binary files or if mergetool won't do, resolve the conflict(s) manually and then do:  git add <file1> [<file2> ...]Once all conflicts are resolved and staged, commit the pending merge with:  git commitSharing-------    git fetch <remote>    update the remote-tracking branches for <remote> (defaults to "origin").  Does not initiate a merge into the current branch (see "git pull" below).    git pull    fetch changes from the server, and merge them into the current branch.  Note: .git/config must have a [branch "some_name"] section for the current  branch, to know which remote-tracking branch to merge into the current  branch.  Git 1.5.3 and above adds this automatically.    git push    update the server with your commits across all branches that are *COMMON*  between your local copy and the server.  Local branches that were never   pushed to the server in the first place are not shared.    git push origin <branch>    update the server with your commits made to <branch> since your last push.  This is always *required* for new branches that you wish to share. After   the first explicit push, "git push" by itself is sufficient.    git push origin <branch>:refs/heads/<branch>    E.g. git push origin twitter-experiment:refs/heads/twitter-experiment  Which, in fact, is the same as git push origin <branch> but a little  more obvious what is happening.  Reverting---------    git revert <rev>    reverse commit specified by <rev> and commit the result.  This does *not* do  the same thing as similarly named commands in other VCS's such as "svn   revert" or "bzr revert", see below    git checkout <file>    re-checkout <file>, overwriting any local changes    git checkout .    re-checkout all files, overwriting any local changes.  This is most similar   to "svn revert" if you're used to Subversion commandsFix mistakes / Undo-------------------    git reset --hard    abandon everything since your last commit; this command can be DANGEROUS.  If merging has resulted in conflicts and you'd like to just forget about  the merge, this command will do that.    git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD    undo your most recent *successful* merge *and* any changes that occurred  after.  Useful for forgetting about the merge you just did.  If there are  conflicts (the merge was not successful), use "git reset --hard" (above)  instead.    git reset --soft HEAD^    forgot something in your last commit? That's easy to fix. Undo your last  commit, but keep the changes in the staging area for editing.    git commit --amend    redo previous commit, including changes you've staged in the meantime.  Also used to edit commit message of previous commit.Plumbing--------test <sha1-A> = $(git merge-base <sha1-A> <sha1-B>)    determine if merging sha1-B into sha1-A is achievable as a fast forward;  non-zero exit status is false.Stashing--------    git stash      git stash save <optional-name>    save your local modifications to a new stash (so you can for example  "git svn rebase" or "git pull")    git stash apply    restore the changes recorded in the stash on top of the current working tree  state    git stash pop    restore the changes from the most recent stash, and remove it from the stack  of stashed changes    git stash list    list all current stashes    git stash show <stash-name> -p    show the contents of a stash - accepts all diff args    git stash drop [<stash-name>]    delete the stash    git stash clear    delete all current stashesRemotes-------    git remote add <remote> <remote_URL>    adds a remote repository to your git config.  Can be then fetched locally.  Example:    git remote add coreteam git://    git fetch coreteam    git push <remote> :refs/heads/<branch>    delete a branch in a remote repository    git push <remote> <remote>:refs/heads/<remote_branch>    create a branch on a remote repository    Example: git push origin origin:refs/heads/new_feature_name    git push <repository> +<remote>:<new_remote>    replace a <remote> branch with <new_remote> think twice before do this    Example: git push origin +master:my_branch    git remote prune <remote>    prune deleted remote-tracking branches from "git branch -r" listing    git remote add -t master -m master origin git://    add a remote and track its master    git remote show <remote>    show information about the remote server.    git checkout -b <local branch> <remote>/<remote branch>    Eg git checkout -b myfeature origin/myfeature    Track a remote branch as a local branch.      git pull <remote> <branch>      git push    For branches that are remotely tracked (via git push) but  that complain about non-fast forward commits when doing a   git push. The pull synchronizes local and remote, and if   all goes well, the result is pushable.Submodules----------    git submodule add <remote_repository> <path/to/submodule>    add the given repository at the given path. The addition will be part of the  next commit.    git submodule update [--init]    Update the registered submodules (clone missing submodules, and checkout  the commit specified by the super-repo). --init is needed the first time.    git submodule foreach <command>    Executes the given command within each checked out submodule.Remove submodules   1. Delete the relevant line from the .gitmodules file.   2. Delete the relevant section from .git/config.   3. Run git rm --cached path_to_submodule (no trailing slash).   4. Commit and delete the now untracked submodule files. Patches-------    git format-patch HEAD^    Generate the last commit as a patch that can be applied on another  clone (or branch) using 'git am'. Format patch can also generate a  patch for all commits using 'git format-patch HEAD^ HEAD'    All page files will be enumerated with a prefix, e.g. 0001 is the  first patch.    git am <patch file>    Applies the patch file generated by format-patch.    git diff --no-prefix > patchfile    Generates a patch file that can be applied using patch:      patch -p0 < patchfile    Useful for sharing changes without generating a git commit.Git Instaweb------------    git instaweb --httpd=webrick [--start | --stop | --restart]  Environment Variables---------------------    GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME    Your full name to be recorded in any newly created commits.  Overrides in .git/config    GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL    Your email address to be recorded in any newly created commits.  Overrides in .git/config    GIT_DIR    Location of the repository to use (for out of working directory repositories)    GIT_WORKING_TREE    Location of the Working Directory - use with GIT_DIR to specifiy the working  directory root  or to work without being in the working directory at all.